A new infrastructure or a new vehicle must be authorised before putting into service or be placed on the market. This is also the case for upgrading or renewal of an authorised vehicle or subsystem. The Swedish Transport Agency authorises infrastructure, while vehicles are authorised by the European Union Agency for Railways or by The Swedish Transport Agency. The authorisation means that a subsystem is allowed to be operated in Sweden. An authorisation is normally valid until the subsystem is upgraded or renewed. In addition, names of operating stations need an authorisation before use.
Note: The new railway act in Sweden has a transition rule saying that all vehicles and infrastructure in cases that was ongoing 1 June 2022 can be authorised using the old regulation and requirements.
The Swedish Transport Agency authorises subsystems for railways according to our Regulations
For the TSFS 2022:35 there is supplementary information:
For all final authorisations for vehicles the EU Regulation (EU) 2018/545 apply.
Normally, EU technical specifications for interoperability (TSIs) also apply for the authorisation, but not for infrastructure and vehicles which are authorised using the national process.
According to the harmonised process, a subsystem is authorised when the essential requirements on safety, interoperability, environment, health, availability, and reliability are met. This means that the new system should be at least as safe as an equivalent subsystem, which is in operation at the time of the application. The authorisation shall also ensure that the subsystems are interoperable and can be operated together (vehicle-infrastructure-signalling system). For a railway subsystem, the essential requirements are deemed to be fulfilled when the subsystem meets the requirements of the relevant TSIs.
The new directive on the interoperability of the rail system within the European Union, EU 2016/797, is applied in Sweden from 1 June 2022. The directive states that the European Union Agency for Railways located in Valenciennes will authorise new and modified railway vehicles. The authorisation will be valid for traffic in an area of use, which can include railway networks in several member states, Norway and Switzerland. If the intended area of use only includes Sweden, the applicant may request the Swedish Railway Agency as authorising entity when applying. The Swedish Railway Authority decides on temporary authorisations for vehicle tests, on authorisations for infrastructure and on all authorisations according to national process.
For authorisation in the harmonised process, the vehicles and infrastructure have to fulfil the relevant TSIs of the European Union, according to the list below. Vehicles must also fulfil a limited number of national rules. The applicant has the responsibility to ensure that the vehicles fulfil the technical requirements of the TSIs. The so-called notified body (NoBo) should assess that the requirements are fulfilled. Agreement with the national rules is assessed by an independent assessor. When the railway legislation is updated, designated bodies (DeBo) will take over the assessment of national rules. For infrastructure and vehicles authorised in the national process, only national requirements apply, assessed by an independent assessor.
The European Union Agency of Railways shall also authorise specifications for trackside train protection systems with ERTMS in connection with new procurements.
|Control Command and Signalling (CCS)||EU 2016/919|
|Locomotives and passenger units
|1302/2014||EU 2019/776, 2020/387|
|Noise (NOI)||1304/2014||EU 2019/774|
|Accessibility for people with reduced mobility
|Energy (ENE)||1301/2014||EU 2019/776|
|Safety in Railway Tunnels (SRT)||1303/2014||EU 2019/776|
What has to be authorised?
The following subsystems for railway, metro and trams need an authorisation before placing in service:
- New vehicles for rail shall be authorised by the European Union Agency for Railways or by the Swedish Transport Agency before they are allowed to be put into service in Sweden. This is also normally the case for imported and considerably modified vehicles. There are some exceptions in our regulations and in TSI Wagons.
- A new or considerably modified railway infrastructure (subsystems Infrastructure, Energy, Control, Command and Signalling) shall be authorised before being put into service. There are some exceptions for minor modifications.
- Technical subsystems (e.g. signalling and radio systems) are only authorised installed in an infrastructure or a vehicle. It is the infrastructure or vehicle where the subsystem is installed which needs an authorisation to be put into service.
- New metro or tram vehicles shall be authorised by the Swedish Transport agency before they are allowed to be placed on the market.
- New or considerably modified track infrastructure for metro or tram shall be authorised before being put into service. There are some exceptions for minor modifications.
- Names and signatures of operating stations in the railway system are essential for traffic safety. They are used in safety calls during railway operation. An authorisation of the operating station name is only needed for new stations and in case of a changed station name.
Authorisations already issued by the Swedish Railway Agency, (Järnvägsstyrelsen) or Järnvägsinspektionen are valid as long as the subsystem is not upgraded or renewed.
Which process does the Swedish Transport Agency apply?
The Swedish Transport Agency regulations on authorisation of subsystems for railway includes two different processes, the harmonised process and the national process. The main process is the harmonised European process with application of TSIs (Technical Specifications for Interoperability). This process is normally used for authorising railway subsystems, as most railway subsystems are affected by the TSIs since 2011. The applicant has to engage a notified body (NoBo) in the authorisation process. A NoBo is an independent assessor who assesses that the subsystem and the interoperable constituents fulfils the TSI requirements.
The national process for authorisation is applied for subsystems based on national rules. The national process applies for some networks that are functionally separate from the rest of the Union rail system like Saltsjöbanan and Roslagsbanan, for historical railway lines, metros, tram and for privately owned infrastructure used by its owner or by an operator for the purpose of their respective freight activities. The national process applies for vehicles used exclusively on such infrastructure, but also for infrastructure and vehicles reserved for a strictly local, historical or touristic use.
When upgrading or renewal of a vehicle authorised using the national process or an infrastructure subsystem, you should send a description of the project to the Swedish Transport Agency, at least for major projects or projects where the safety level may be affected. We will decide if there is a need for a new authorisation of the modified subsystem and which functions that have to be reassessed in the project. Only modified functions and interfaces to these functions should be reassessed in a project. You are always welcome to contact the Swedish Transport Agency for clarifications.
How to find Nobos
The notified bodies are notified to assess subsystems according to one or more TSIs. All NoBos are listed on the Commission website "NANDO", New Approach Notified and Designated Organisations (see external links on the right). On this website, you can find notified bodies searching by directives (e.g. the interoperability directive (EU) 2015/797). You will also find for which subsystems each NoBo is notified.
Who can apply?
The applicant for a vehicle authorisation may be the contracting entity or the manufacturer, or their authorised representative within the Community. For infrastructure, the constructer or the contracting entity may be the applicant. The applicant is responsible for sending all necessary documentation to the Swedish Transport Agency or the European Union Agency for Railways. The Swedish Transport Agency always addresses the authorisation decision of a subsystem to the applicant.
An authorised subsystem is allowed to be put into service or put on the market and to be used by all operators who have safety certificates or a safety authorisation for the operation of the relevant types of subsystems. The operator has to apply the conditions and the manuals specified in the authorisation.
How to apply?
You apply for harmonised authorisation of vehicles by submitting an application in the IT tool One Stop Shop (OSS), provided by the European Union Agency of Railways. More information about OSS can be found on the Agency's website. If the applicant chooses the Swedish Transport Agency as authorising entity, we accept an application in Swedish or English. For less extensive documents Danish or Norwegian is also acceptable.
For authorisation of infrastructure or vehicles to be authorised according to the national process, you apply by filling in and submitting a form found on our website. The form is e-mailed to email@example.com. We prefer to get all documentation in a case by e-mail. We accept applications in Swedish or English. For less extensive documents Danish or Norwegian is also acceptable. On receipt of the application, we establish an authorisation case and assign a handling officer to this. Read more about applications on the websites dedicated to authorisations of vehicles and infrastructure, respectively.
According to the railway law, the Swedish Transport Agency may revoke an authorisation of a subsystem in the case of:
- A subsystem does not fulfil the essential requirements any more (e.g. after a modification)
- The keeper or operator of the subsystem does not follow mandatory laws or regulations.
The Swedish Transport Agency may also prohibit or limit the use of an authorised subsystem. We may also set fines in these cases.
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